Atsugewi Creation Story

Atsugewi Creation Story–Adapted from the Telling of Roland Dixon

Originally all was water. In the clear sky a cloud formed. It turned into Coyote. Then a fog formed and became Silver Fox. They thought of a canoe which they made their home. They floated in it for many years till they became tired of it. Silver Fox told Coyote to lie down and go to sleep. When he did Silver Fox combed out Coyote’s hair and rubbed it between his hands flattening out and laid it on the water where it covered all the surface. He then thought of a tree and it appeared. Then he thought of shrubs and rocks and they appeared. He used the rocks to weigh down the film on the water so it did not ripple in the wind. Thus, it became the world. The canoe floated to the edge of it and Silver Fox woke up Coyote, saying that they were going to sink. Coyote woke up and saw cherries and plums overhead and heard crickets. He ate the cherries and plums and crickets. Coyote wanted to know what place it was. Silver Fox denied knowing where it was, denying that he made it. They landed and built a sweat lodge and lived in it. After a while they decided to make people, taking service berry twigs and sticking them on the inside of their house. The twigs became all the nonhuman persons, the animals, except for the deer which is like deer are today. Pine Martin was chief and Eagle, his sister was the woman chief. They went out hunting and killed a deer and had plenty to eat. The only thing was that the points of the arrows were of pine bark because they did not know where obsidian was. Ground Squirrel knew where obsidian was by a lake where Obsidian Old Man lived in a sweat house. Ground Squirrel brought the old man some roots which he liked very much. He sent Ground Squirrel to get some more. But while he was getting roots Grizzly Bear came and scared him saying, “Let me sit in your lap.” He ate the roots. Ground Squirrel went back to the sweat house, but with few roots. He told Obsidian Old Man what had happened. The old man said that he would go out the next day. They did and Ground Squirrel gathered roots and Grizzly Bear came up and sat on his lap and ate them. Obsidian Old Man came near and Grizzly Bear got up to fight. He slashed at him but cut himself to pieces. Ground Squirrel and Obsidian Old Man went home, ate the roots and went to sleep. In the morning Ground Squirrel pretended to be sick. The old man was suspicious but said he would get some wood. The old man snuck back to spy on Ground Squirrel who groaned and vomited up green substance. The old man thought he really was sick but Ground Squirrel had fooled him. The old man went for wood and Ground Squirrel stole obsidian points from him and ran off. The old man came back and found Ground Squirrel gone so he ran after him. He nearly caught him but Ground Squirrel ran down a hole. The old man dug after him and nearly caught him but he got away and ran down another hole. The old man gave up and went home. Ground Squirrel crossed the river and put down his points and went to the sweat house where he went to sleep. Cocoon slept there too. The people came in with deer and Ground Squirrel and Cocoon cut it into thin slices. Then Ground Squirrel went back and got the arrow points and gave them to everybody who tied them to the tips of their arrows.

Cupeño Creation Story–Adapted from the Telling of EW Gifford

Cupeño creation story adapted from the telling of EW Gifford

Originally it was a dark void. A bag hung in space which divided into two halves. One half was Coyote, the other Wildcat. They argued about who was older. Coyote spoke first so he was the elder. The people did not come from Coyote and Wildcat. They came from the mud. Humans understand Coyote because he spoke first.

Wiyot Creation Story

Wiyot creation story adapted from the telling of Gladys Reichard

The first people were born not right and were free. Above Old Man thought, How will they get rid of them? Condor knew that water would come. Condor’s sister got in a basket. It was tossed around and then came to rest. She got out on land. The furry people were no more. Condor saw birds, wild pigeons, turtledoves. He flew around and then saw coon tracks. Condor called his sister, she did not answer. He married her and she became pregnant. People were born. They began to talk and Above Old Man was content with them.

Another Maidu Creation Story

Maidu creation story adapted from the telling of Roland Dixon

In the beginning Earth Maker and Coyote floated in a canoe on the sea. They sought land and after some time saw something that resembled a bird’s nest. Earth Maker attached ropes to the nest that stretched to the East, West, North, South and Northwest. They sang and through the songs Coyote created a world that is rough and hard to travel through. This showed Coyote’s evil qualities. Earth Maker told Coyote to lie on his face and he stretched the mass all directions so that no and can be seen of it. Coyote took off to tour the land and left Earth Maker alone. Earth Maker created two tiny figures, barely bigger than a seed. He planted these under a gopher hill and traveled about planting figures like this all over the place. He said that each pair would become people and grow and have children and that their children would have children. He made as many pairs as there are tribes and people. He built the house and dwelled there a long time. Coyote came back and built a house near there too. Earth Maker named all the people which were animals. Earth Maker called a counsel and persuaded the nonhuman persons to destroy Coyote who is evil. They destroyed all the Coyotes except one which they catch. They try various ways to destroy Coyote but he escapes. Earth Maker brought a flood. All the animals escaped in a canoe and Coyote managed to get in it unseen. Earth Maker gave up and created a wife and told Coyote to do the same. There will be another race of people – the human beings. Coyote caused life for humans to be difficult and that they shall die rather than living forever as Earth Maker had wished. Earth Maker gave up and left and left a reed that turned into a rattlesnake that killed Coyote’s son. Coyote tried to follow him and repented saying that human should live forever and life should be easy but Earth Maker didn’t hear. Coyote turned back. Earth maker traveled around destroying monsters that would make life dangerous for humans and created a lake that would bestow eternal life. Coyote went around and destroyed all that Earth Maker has done, including the lake. He boasted how clever he was. Earth Maker went to the East and disappeared. Coyote went to the West and disappeared.

Maidu Creation Story

Maidu creation story adapted from the telling of Roland Dixon.

In the beginning all was dark – there was only water and there was no sun, moon or stars. A raft drifted in from the north that held Turtle and Father of Secret Society. From the sky a rope of feathers came down with Earth Initiate on it. He tied it to the raft. For a long time he did not speak until Turtle asked him if he could create some land so that he could come out of the water. Turtledove asked whether there would be people. Earth Initiate said he did not know. Turtle told Earth Initiate to tie the rope to him as he was going to dive to the bottom. “One tug and the line is not long enough to pull me out. Two tugs I reach the bottom so pull me up.” Turtle dove and was gone six years. When he got back he had only a little earth under his nails. Earth Initiate took the earth, rolled it in his palms and put it in the stern of the raft. He checked it four times – each time it grew larger until it filled the world. The raft was a ground. Turtle asked that there be light. Earth Initiate looked to the east and said he would ask his sister to rise. She rose and set. Father of Secret Society cried because it was dark. Earth Initiate said he would ask his brother to rise. Then the moon rose. Earth Initiate called out all the stars by name. Then he made a tree grow. Turtle and Father of the Secret Society sat in the shade of the tree. It produced 12 different types of acorns. They went off to see the world. Coyote and Rattlesnake came up from under the ground. All five of them built huts and Earth Initiate made the birds and the trees and the animals. Earth Initiate made the deer and he and Coyote were at Marysville Buttes when Earth Initiate said he would make people. He made a man and a woman of red clay. They were quite handsome but he did not finish their hands. Coyote suggested they should have hands like his. Earth Initiate said no – and made hands like his own so that if they were chased by bears they could climb trees. The man was called Ku’ksu and the woman MorningStar woman. Coyote tried to make people but created glassy eyed ones. Earth Initiate told Ku’ksu to go to a lake and take all the people with him. He grew old on the way there. He fell into the lake but emerged young again. Earth Initiate told people if they grew old to come to the lake and they would be made young again. Everybody lived easily but Coyote thought it was not good. He told the people to have a burning which began with games – beginning with a foot race. Ku’ksu was sad and did not participate because he knew what was going to happen. Rattlesnake told him he knew what to do. He hid along the course of the foot race. He bit Coyote’s son. He died. That was the first death. Coyote cried and all the people cried. Coyote begged Ku’ksu to bring his son to life. He gave him beads and bear claws. Ku’ksu dug a grave and laid the body in and said that is how things were to be done. The people had a burning but started speaking different languages. Ku’ksu spoke to them all because he could speak all the languages. He called the different tribes by their names and sent them in different directions. Ku’ksu went away to his spirit house where he sat and ate with the son of Coyote. Coyote tracked him there. Coyote wanted to go in and eat spirit food. Ku’ksu said no – it was Coyote’s fault. There would be trouble and death. Only when earth Initiate comes again will everything be made over. Coyote went and told the people the way it would be but wanted to kill himself to join his son and Ku’ksu and eat spirit food. He jumped off a high place and died but when he got to the spirit house Ku’ksu and Coyote’s son had left and gone up above.

Miwok Creation Stories

Miwok Creation of Man after the telling of C Hart Merriam

After the world cooled Falcon went to Mount Diablo to see his father Condor and his grandfather, Coyote. He asked Condor how he could make the Indian people. He told Falcon that he did not know but his grandfather, Coyote could tell him. Coyote said, “First you must provide everything, everywhere so they can live.” Falcon said he wanted to do it. Coyote said I must catch Turkey Buzzard, Raven and Crow but to do that I must pretend to be dead. So Coyote pretended to be dead. Turkey Buzzard, Raven and Crow all alighted and Coyote caught them. Coyote called Falcon and told him to pick the feathers off the birds and not to lose a single one. The next morning Coyote and Falcon traveled around and planted three feathers at all the places they wanted people to be. One feather was for the chief, one for the woman chief, and one for the poor. The next morning the feathers turned into Indian people. This is the way the different rancherias came to be. Then Coyote and Falcon turned into the forms they have today.

How the people got fire

Fire was first made by the doctor birds at the birth of Falcon. Then it was made by North Giant. After North Giant died the fire burned up the world and died out, except for that of the star women who live far off to the east where the sun comes up by an elderberry tree. Coyote said, “We must steal the fire.” Falcon asked how. “Send Hummingbird, he is faster than you.” Hummingbird darted off to the east where he waited till he saw a spark which he grabbed and brought back to Falcon and Coyote. He held it under his chin which is why you will see a mark there today. Falcon asked, “Where shall we put it?” Coyote said to put it in the buckeye tree where an Indian can get it when he wants it.

Originally the whole world was dark. Coyote and Lizard tried to make Indian people, each like himself. Lizard said of Coyote’s people, “How can a man hold anything?” Coyote and Lizard quarreled and Coyote tried to kill Lizard but he hid in a crack in a rock. They argued and Lizard won so that people have five fingers. They saw smoke in the Valley and sent White Footed Mouse with his flute to get fire. Eagle was chief of the Valley people and Falcon lived with him. White Footed Mouse took out his flute to play. It made everybody sleepy and happy. When everybody was asleep White Footed Mouse stole two coals from the fire which he put in his flute. Eagle had sealed the door with a feather blanket but White Footed Mouse cut a hole in it and ran towards the mountains. The people awoke and found the fire gone so they sent the fastest ones after him. These were Hail and Shower. White Footed Mouse saw them coming so he put one coal in the buckeye and threw the other one in the water. They caught him but could not find the fire so they let him go. Then White Footed Mouse took the coal from the buckeye and took it to the mountain people where they built a fire in their roundhouse. Only people in the middle of the roundhouse could speak. Those on the outside were so cold that their teeth were chattering. They separated into four groups from the four sides of the house. One was from the north, one from the south, one from the east, and one from the west. There was one from the middle. They all began to speak differently, which is why the Miwok people are broken out into five languages.

Paht’-Win Creation Story–Adapted from the Telling of Frank Latta

Paht’-Win Creation Story—Adapted from the telling of Frank Latta

First the world had no land, it was covered with water. Only Coyote and Rattlesnake were land people. The rest were water people. Coyote was chief and under him was Rattlesnake and Turtle. Coyote sent the great snake spirit to get some earth. The great snake crawled over mountains and trees and could not be caught. He had Whirlwind make him invisible. He made the rivers and the creeks and went under the water, ran away and left the land. Turtle helped make the rivers and creeks. He wouldn’t go where Coyote told him so Coyote threw him in the water where he remained. After the world was made Coyote made the bird and animal people. He made Deer, Crow, Gopher, Quail, and many others. Everyone went to sleep and the water returned and drowned everyone except Coyote and the head men. So Coyote made the world and the animal people all over again. But everyone went to sleep and Coyote had to make everything again. This time he had someone stay awake. Nowadays someone always stays awake but sometime everyone will fall asleep and everyone will drown again. Coyote had Rattlesnake crawl around and kill bad people. He never kills good people. Because of this Indians never kill a rattlesnake. Coyote made Blue Jay who planted all the trees for the people. Coyote had the old-time people get fire for him and he put it in the elderberry in the buckeye where people can get it wherever they wanted.

Yokuts Creation Stories

Yokuts Creation Stories—Adapted from the telling of Frank Latta

Wuk-Chum’- Nee Yokuts creation

Originally there was only sky where a large tree grew. Eagle and his son lived there. Eagle grew tired of flying around and decided to make the world. It was covered with water. Then he made Turtle, and then the bird and animal people who swim in the water. He then made Mountain Lion, the Condor, the Prairie falcon, the wolf, the coyote, the Fox, the wildcat, the dove, and the black bear. They all lived in the tree but Eagle saw he could not live with coyote because he was mean and sneaky. Eagle and Turtle, Teal DucK, Mud Hen, and Pelican dived in the water to bring something up. None could reach the bottom. Finally Turtle said he would go to the bottom and bring something up. He struck some mud and brought it up in his claws but almost drowned. Eagle picked him up and took the mud. He mixed it with the seed of the shepherd’s purse plant. He mixed it in the ceremonial mortar and left it for six days. The animals wanted to see who would be allowed to spread it around. Wolf took it and threw it to the South, West, North, East. After seven days the water started to go away. Then the tree came down to the land and became an oak tree. Eagle made all of the rest of the bird and animal people. The Yokuts people came and the birds and animals went to the mountains and plains.

Yowl-May’-Nee Yokuts creation

First there was the sky were Eagle lived. He decided to make the world, first making it covered with water. Then he made all the birds and animals that live in the water. He decided there needed to be more so he called the heron, the teal ducK, the mallard duck, the goose, the pelican, the turtle, and all the rest. He told them they needed to dive to the bottom to bring up something to make land. Each of the animals in turn dove to the bottom but they drowned. Eagle brought them back to life and asked if they had found anything. Each said they had but they had drowned before they could bring it up. Finally, Eagle sent Teal Duck down and he came back with some mud in his paws. Eagle mixed it with seed of pa’luh and it swelled. He threw it in every direction and it became the land and all the bird and animal people. Coyote and Wolf were among them. Coyote wanted to howl but Wolf told him not to – that the land would sink. Coyote howled anyway three times and all the first bird and animal people drowned when the land sank. Eagle sent Teal Duck to dive to the bottom and bring up more mud which he mixed with pa’luh seed. More land was formed and more bird and animal people. Coyote wanted to howl again but Wolf howled first and the land was made strong. Now coyote howls whenever the Morning Star begins to fade.

Too-Lahm’-Nee Yokuts creation

Originally there was only the sky above. Eagle and Prairie falcon lived there. Coyote made the world all covered with water. Eagle made a nest in the water and laid three eggs in it. The eggs hatched into the white wolf, the coyote, and the little duck. Prairie falcon told Little Duck to dive to the bottom and get something to make the world. He dived and reached the bottom where he took some of it in his feet and in his beak. Then he drowned. Prairie falcon brought him into the nest and breathed life into him. He took the mud from Little Duck’s feet and beak and gave it to Eagle. Eagle mixed it with the seed of the shepherd’s purse plant. It began to swell and Eagle spread it in all directions where it formed a film over the water. White Wolf, Coyote and Little Duck climbed out of the nest onto the land. Lightning came and Coyote began began to howl. White Wolf told him it would cause the land the sink. Thunder came and told White Wolf to howl. He did and the earth stop shaking. Eagle made all the bird and animal people of the world except the Indians.

Dum’-Nah Yokuts creation

There were four ducks, two big ones and their children, small duck and a real little one. They swam around having a good time till they grew tired of it and asked Eagle to make a land. They dove to the bottom to bring something up that could only go about halfway down. White neck Eagle saw this. The father duck told his little one to dive to the bottom. The little one said he would drown and cried for help from the whirlpool. He swam in the whirlpool and dove to the bottom and caught some mud. He sang for the whirlpool to take him back up. He almost drowned but his father caught him and called for the White neck Eagle to come. The little duck had nearly washed all the mud from his beak and feet but White neck Eagle found a few grains and flew up to Eagle who told him to throw it in all directions to make the land, the river and trees and the old-time animal people. Coyote, Elk, Jackrabbit, Deer, and all the rest were made. A man was made who went up into the mountains but White neck Eagle and his father did not know that. One day they saw fire. White neck Eagle went to get some but the fire was too hot and burned his neck black. That’s how he is now.

Pomo Creation Story

Promo creation story – – adapted from the telling of Jaime de Angulo

Marumda lived in a cloud house in the North that looked like ice. He said, I will ask my brother in the South about making the world. He pulled out four of his hairs and asked them to lead them to his brother. He held them to the east, the north, the west and finally to the south. The hairs floated to the south and left a streak of fire that the cloud house followed, floating. Marumda rode in it. He slept four times and finally reached his elder brother Kuksu’s house. The hairs floated around Kuksu’s house four times and finally entered on the east side. Marumda smoked his pipe four times, then offered it to his brother Kuksu. Kuksu said that their knowledge would be good and quit smoking. Marumda and Kuksu circled each other four times, then Marumda smoked again, drawing four times. Then he offered his pipe to Kuksu. He blew the smoke to the South, the West, the East, the North and the nadir. Marumda scraped armpit wax from his armpit, then gave it to Kuksu who stuck it between his big toe and the next. Then Kuksu scraped his armpit wax and stuck it between Marumda’s toes. Marumda removed it and blew on it four times. Kuksu removed his armpit wax and blew on it four times. The brothers each circled the other four times. Then they took the ball of wax and added them together, adding hairs from each of them. They faced the four directions and the nadir, then they said the plan will be good. There will be food from the water, land, air and under the ground. People will have many villages. They said the daytime sun will pass overhead at day the nighttime sun at night. Kuksu said the plan will be good. Marumda spoke, holding the ball of wax to the four directions and the nadir. He said there will be people and plenty of food. Marumda put the ball of wax in the sack that held the tobacco and rode back to his house in the north. For four nights he was awakened until the armpit wax grew. He threw it into space where it was dark. He took his pipe and an ember from his sack and created the sun which traveled to the South. Marumda walked around the earth creating the rocks and the mountains, the food plants and the animals. He caused the sun to alternate day and night, light and dark. He made a river with fish and many villages. He made a mountain with flint for tools and basketry plants. He made wood for bows and wood for arrows. He made a mountain for playgrounds for the water bears and the people. He made a mountain where it was forbidden for the people to come. He made the features of the land. He made waves on the lake. He took an acorn shell and put it on the waters of the lake where it grew and became a boat. He smoked again and crossed the lake in the boat. He made people out of rocks that he put in the mountains and people out of hair who he taught to eat. He made people out of wood. He made people from the hairs from his arm. These people became deer. He made people from sinew. These people were hairless. He made people from hairs that became bears. Then he made people of flint who flew in the air. Then he danced and dreamed that the people were doing bad. Marumda floated in his house to his brother Kuksu’s house. Marumda consulted with his brother saying that people are intermarrying and their offspring are puny and deformed. He told Kuksu he would wash the people away. They smoked four times and then it rained for four days. It flooded. Marumda sought refuge on the top of a mountain where he called for help from his grandmother, Old Lady Spider. She sent a spiderweb basket and in it he floated up to the sky. She took him to Kuksu’s house where he told Kuksu that he had washed away the people. She lowered Marumda to the ground. He looked for people but found none. He went to the lake where he said there will be people he went to a Valley and wished people to be to and they had a dance house. He smoked again causing a fog. The people ran for cover. He made a speech telling the people together in the dance house where he began the ceremony. Time passed and people started their incestuous ways again. Marumda and Kuksu smoked again. They decided to destroy the people with fire. Marumda told the Fire Man who lived with the sun to burn the earth. Marumda ran around seeking shelter on the mountain when Spider saved him with her net again. She took him to Kuksu’s house. Marumda went to a Valley where he fastened the string to his ear hole after planting willow sticks. People were created. He went to them. He was an old man leaning on a stick. He taught the people that the people before had done wrong. He taught them the way to be, not to commit incest. He made a bowl and an arrow and told the people to shoot a deer. They did not know what to do with it. He taught them to skin it. He taught the women to weave baskets. He taught the women how to prepare food by pounding. He made a fish trap of willow, with which he trapped many fish. He roasted the fish and the women made acorn mush. Marumda went back to his place in the North. Time passed and he dreamed that the people were acting badly again. He went to Kuksu’s house where they smoked. They decided to destroy the people was snow and ice. After they did Marumda went back to the South. He lay down to sleep and wish people to be. He went to their dance house where he told people how it should be. He told them what to eat and use a milkweed string net. He taught the people how to catch fish with the net. He taught them to cook the fish and to eat them. He told them to perform their ceremonies in the dance house and chose one man to be the head chief. He went back to his house and in the north. Time passed. He dreamed that the people were acting badly, turning to incest. He floated to Kuksu’s house where they smoked. He conferred with Kuksu who decided to destroy the people again with a whirlwind. Marumda went to Whirlwind Man’s house who he told that the people were committing incest and they should be destroyed. Whirlwind Man destroyed the people and sought out Marumda with whom he smoked. Marumda thought the earth must not be naked, it must have people. He went to the East where he came to a valley. He planted sticks which he connected to a string in his ear hole. He slept and when he awoke he found people. He made a bow and arrows and taught them to hunt deer. He taught them to net and trap fish. He made a mortar and pestle a metate and mano. He taught them to grind food. He taught them to make friends with people over the hill who spoke differently from them. He taught them to dance. The people hunted the deer and the woman made acorn mush. He taught them to store their food and told them to hold festivals. Some boys talked to him and he took an acorn shell and threw it in the lake where it became a boat. He crossed the lake where Kuksu came. He asked if the people were behaving. Marumda gathered the people and told them to hold a four-day dance. The people crowded the dance house. They went to bathe at the lake and went back to the dance house. They gave Marumda a ball of mush and he departed. He taught the coyotes, the wolves, the pumas to hunt. He taught the skunks and raccoons how to behave. He taught the martins and the elk how to do. He taught all the animals how to do. He taught the birds and the water birds. He taught the fishes. He taught the turtle. Marumda got on top of a mountain and instructed every being how to behave and what to eat. He went to Kuksu’s house where he told them he had done well. Four times people were destroyed. This is how the world came to be.

Walapai Creation Stories

Walapai Creation Story

Adapted from the telling of Alfred Kroeber

In the old days was Wikame, the only land in the world of water. There was Matavila who decided to create people. He cut cane in the water, one piece for each nation of people. He prayed over them, they came to life and the water dried up. After Matavila created people he died. There were the Hopi, Navajo, Paiute, Walapai and Havasupai. These and others separated and went in different directions. The children played roughly in the mud. One got hurt and cried to his parents. The parents of the children began to fight. The relatives joined in. Some of the tribes were afraid to fight and fled. The Walapai and Yavapai fought it out. The Yavapai became afraid and fled to the south. The Yavapai never forgot and continued to fight the Walapai. Eventually the old people died off and the young people became friendly and the fighting stopped.

Coyote Steals Matavila’s Heart

When Matavila, who lived on Wikame, was dying he asked Coyote if when a person dies does he come back in four days? Coyote said, “No, he is gone forever.” The people, when Matavila was dead decided he should be cremated. They sent Coyote away to get fire and while he was gone they asked Fly to make fire. The piled up wood, put the body on top and lit the pyre. Coyote saw the fire and ran back, jumped over Wildcat and Badger and stole a piece of Matavila’s heart that was left. The people pursued Coyote who jumped into a hole in the rock. When the people got there the saw only Chuckawala. Perhaps Coyote had turned into Chuckawala. Coyote ran off and the people pursued. He jumped behind a stump. Perhaps Coyote turned into a stump. They couldn’t find Coyote anywhere. They returned home without Coyote.

Another Creation Story

Once, all the tribes were one. There were two gods, Hamatavila and Tudjupa. Tudjupa was the younger of the two. After the water dried up and left the mountain Wikame, the two gods emerged from under it. Hamatavila told Tudjupa that he knew nothing and that Tudjupa should rule. Tudjupa cut pieces of cane that became the Mohave, the Walapai, that Havasupai, the Hopi, the Chemehuevi and the Yavapai. These people all lived around Wikame. Hamatavila stepped on a frog despite the warning of Tudjupa. Hamatavila became ill and died because of this. Tudjupa said to the people, “We will cremate the body in four days. After four days the body will come to life.” Coyote said this was wrong, told Tudjupa to cut his hair short and burn all of Hamatavila’s property. Tudjupa said to bury the body and corn, pumpkins, watermelons and beans grew from it.