Miwok Creation Stories

Miwok Creation of Man after the telling of C Hart Merriam

After the world cooled Falcon went to Mount Diablo to see his father Condor and his grandfather, Coyote. He asked Condor how he could make the Indian people. He told Falcon that he did not know but his grandfather, Coyote could tell him. Coyote said, “First you must provide everything, everywhere so they can live.” Falcon said he wanted to do it. Coyote said I must catch Turkey Buzzard, Raven and Crow but to do that I must pretend to be dead. So Coyote pretended to be dead. Turkey Buzzard, Raven and Crow all alighted and Coyote caught them. Coyote called Falcon and told him to pick the feathers off the birds and not to lose a single one. The next morning Coyote and Falcon traveled around and planted three feathers at all the places they wanted people to be. One feather was for the chief, one for the woman chief, and one for the poor. The next morning the feathers turned into Indian people. This is the way the different rancherias came to be. Then Coyote and Falcon turned into the forms they have today.

How the people got fire

Fire was first made by the doctor birds at the birth of Falcon. Then it was made by North Giant. After North Giant died the fire burned up the world and died out, except for that of the star women who live far off to the east where the sun comes up by an elderberry tree. Coyote said, “We must steal the fire.” Falcon asked how. “Send Hummingbird, he is faster than you.” Hummingbird darted off to the east where he waited till he saw a spark which he grabbed and brought back to Falcon and Coyote. He held it under his chin which is why you will see a mark there today. Falcon asked, “Where shall we put it?” Coyote said to put it in the buckeye tree where an Indian can get it when he wants it.

Originally the whole world was dark. Coyote and Lizard tried to make Indian people, each like himself. Lizard said of Coyote’s people, “How can a man hold anything?” Coyote and Lizard quarreled and Coyote tried to kill Lizard but he hid in a crack in a rock. They argued and Lizard won so that people have five fingers. They saw smoke in the Valley and sent White Footed Mouse with his flute to get fire. Eagle was chief of the Valley people and Falcon lived with him. White Footed Mouse took out his flute to play. It made everybody sleepy and happy. When everybody was asleep White Footed Mouse stole two coals from the fire which he put in his flute. Eagle had sealed the door with a feather blanket but White Footed Mouse cut a hole in it and ran towards the mountains. The people awoke and found the fire gone so they sent the fastest ones after him. These were Hail and Shower. White Footed Mouse saw them coming so he put one coal in the buckeye and threw the other one in the water. They caught him but could not find the fire so they let him go. Then White Footed Mouse took the coal from the buckeye and took it to the mountain people where they built a fire in their roundhouse. Only people in the middle of the roundhouse could speak. Those on the outside were so cold that their teeth were chattering. They separated into four groups from the four sides of the house. One was from the north, one from the south, one from the east, and one from the west. There was one from the middle. They all began to speak differently, which is why the Miwok people are broken out into five languages.

Paht’-Win Creation Story–Adapted from the Telling of Frank Latta

Paht’-Win Creation Story—Adapted from the telling of Frank Latta

First the world had no land, it was covered with water. Only Coyote and Rattlesnake were land people. The rest were water people. Coyote was chief and under him was Rattlesnake and Turtle. Coyote sent the great snake spirit to get some earth. The great snake crawled over mountains and trees and could not be caught. He had Whirlwind make him invisible. He made the rivers and the creeks and went under the water, ran away and left the land. Turtle helped make the rivers and creeks. He wouldn’t go where Coyote told him so Coyote threw him in the water where he remained. After the world was made Coyote made the bird and animal people. He made Deer, Crow, Gopher, Quail, and many others. Everyone went to sleep and the water returned and drowned everyone except Coyote and the head men. So Coyote made the world and the animal people all over again. But everyone went to sleep and Coyote had to make everything again. This time he had someone stay awake. Nowadays someone always stays awake but sometime everyone will fall asleep and everyone will drown again. Coyote had Rattlesnake crawl around and kill bad people. He never kills good people. Because of this Indians never kill a rattlesnake. Coyote made Blue Jay who planted all the trees for the people. Coyote had the old-time people get fire for him and he put it in the elderberry in the buckeye where people can get it wherever they wanted.

Yokuts Creation Stories

Yokuts Creation Stories—Adapted from the telling of Frank Latta

Wuk-Chum’- Nee Yokuts creation

Originally there was only sky where a large tree grew. Eagle and his son lived there. Eagle grew tired of flying around and decided to make the world. It was covered with water. Then he made Turtle, and then the bird and animal people who swim in the water. He then made Mountain Lion, the Condor, the Prairie falcon, the wolf, the coyote, the Fox, the wildcat, the dove, and the black bear. They all lived in the tree but Eagle saw he could not live with coyote because he was mean and sneaky. Eagle and Turtle, Teal DucK, Mud Hen, and Pelican dived in the water to bring something up. None could reach the bottom. Finally Turtle said he would go to the bottom and bring something up. He struck some mud and brought it up in his claws but almost drowned. Eagle picked him up and took the mud. He mixed it with the seed of the shepherd’s purse plant. He mixed it in the ceremonial mortar and left it for six days. The animals wanted to see who would be allowed to spread it around. Wolf took it and threw it to the South, West, North, East. After seven days the water started to go away. Then the tree came down to the land and became an oak tree. Eagle made all of the rest of the bird and animal people. The Yokuts people came and the birds and animals went to the mountains and plains.

Yowl-May’-Nee Yokuts creation

First there was the sky were Eagle lived. He decided to make the world, first making it covered with water. Then he made all the birds and animals that live in the water. He decided there needed to be more so he called the heron, the teal ducK, the mallard duck, the goose, the pelican, the turtle, and all the rest. He told them they needed to dive to the bottom to bring up something to make land. Each of the animals in turn dove to the bottom but they drowned. Eagle brought them back to life and asked if they had found anything. Each said they had but they had drowned before they could bring it up. Finally, Eagle sent Teal Duck down and he came back with some mud in his paws. Eagle mixed it with seed of pa’luh and it swelled. He threw it in every direction and it became the land and all the bird and animal people. Coyote and Wolf were among them. Coyote wanted to howl but Wolf told him not to – that the land would sink. Coyote howled anyway three times and all the first bird and animal people drowned when the land sank. Eagle sent Teal Duck to dive to the bottom and bring up more mud which he mixed with pa’luh seed. More land was formed and more bird and animal people. Coyote wanted to howl again but Wolf howled first and the land was made strong. Now coyote howls whenever the Morning Star begins to fade.

Too-Lahm’-Nee Yokuts creation

Originally there was only the sky above. Eagle and Prairie falcon lived there. Coyote made the world all covered with water. Eagle made a nest in the water and laid three eggs in it. The eggs hatched into the white wolf, the coyote, and the little duck. Prairie falcon told Little Duck to dive to the bottom and get something to make the world. He dived and reached the bottom where he took some of it in his feet and in his beak. Then he drowned. Prairie falcon brought him into the nest and breathed life into him. He took the mud from Little Duck’s feet and beak and gave it to Eagle. Eagle mixed it with the seed of the shepherd’s purse plant. It began to swell and Eagle spread it in all directions where it formed a film over the water. White Wolf, Coyote and Little Duck climbed out of the nest onto the land. Lightning came and Coyote began began to howl. White Wolf told him it would cause the land the sink. Thunder came and told White Wolf to howl. He did and the earth stop shaking. Eagle made all the bird and animal people of the world except the Indians.

Dum’-Nah Yokuts creation

There were four ducks, two big ones and their children, small duck and a real little one. They swam around having a good time till they grew tired of it and asked Eagle to make a land. They dove to the bottom to bring something up that could only go about halfway down. White neck Eagle saw this. The father duck told his little one to dive to the bottom. The little one said he would drown and cried for help from the whirlpool. He swam in the whirlpool and dove to the bottom and caught some mud. He sang for the whirlpool to take him back up. He almost drowned but his father caught him and called for the White neck Eagle to come. The little duck had nearly washed all the mud from his beak and feet but White neck Eagle found a few grains and flew up to Eagle who told him to throw it in all directions to make the land, the river and trees and the old-time animal people. Coyote, Elk, Jackrabbit, Deer, and all the rest were made. A man was made who went up into the mountains but White neck Eagle and his father did not know that. One day they saw fire. White neck Eagle went to get some but the fire was too hot and burned his neck black. That’s how he is now.

Pomo Creation Story

Promo creation story – – adapted from the telling of Jaime de Angulo

Marumda lived in a cloud house in the North that looked like ice. He said, I will ask my brother in the South about making the world. He pulled out four of his hairs and asked them to lead them to his brother. He held them to the east, the north, the west and finally to the south. The hairs floated to the south and left a streak of fire that the cloud house followed, floating. Marumda rode in it. He slept four times and finally reached his elder brother Kuksu’s house. The hairs floated around Kuksu’s house four times and finally entered on the east side. Marumda smoked his pipe four times, then offered it to his brother Kuksu. Kuksu said that their knowledge would be good and quit smoking. Marumda and Kuksu circled each other four times, then Marumda smoked again, drawing four times. Then he offered his pipe to Kuksu. He blew the smoke to the South, the West, the East, the North and the nadir. Marumda scraped armpit wax from his armpit, then gave it to Kuksu who stuck it between his big toe and the next. Then Kuksu scraped his armpit wax and stuck it between Marumda’s toes. Marumda removed it and blew on it four times. Kuksu removed his armpit wax and blew on it four times. The brothers each circled the other four times. Then they took the ball of wax and added them together, adding hairs from each of them. They faced the four directions and the nadir, then they said the plan will be good. There will be food from the water, land, air and under the ground. People will have many villages. They said the daytime sun will pass overhead at day the nighttime sun at night. Kuksu said the plan will be good. Marumda spoke, holding the ball of wax to the four directions and the nadir. He said there will be people and plenty of food. Marumda put the ball of wax in the sack that held the tobacco and rode back to his house in the north. For four nights he was awakened until the armpit wax grew. He threw it into space where it was dark. He took his pipe and an ember from his sack and created the sun which traveled to the South. Marumda walked around the earth creating the rocks and the mountains, the food plants and the animals. He caused the sun to alternate day and night, light and dark. He made a river with fish and many villages. He made a mountain with flint for tools and basketry plants. He made wood for bows and wood for arrows. He made a mountain for playgrounds for the water bears and the people. He made a mountain where it was forbidden for the people to come. He made the features of the land. He made waves on the lake. He took an acorn shell and put it on the waters of the lake where it grew and became a boat. He smoked again and crossed the lake in the boat. He made people out of rocks that he put in the mountains and people out of hair who he taught to eat. He made people out of wood. He made people from the hairs from his arm. These people became deer. He made people from sinew. These people were hairless. He made people from hairs that became bears. Then he made people of flint who flew in the air. Then he danced and dreamed that the people were doing bad. Marumda floated in his house to his brother Kuksu’s house. Marumda consulted with his brother saying that people are intermarrying and their offspring are puny and deformed. He told Kuksu he would wash the people away. They smoked four times and then it rained for four days. It flooded. Marumda sought refuge on the top of a mountain where he called for help from his grandmother, Old Lady Spider. She sent a spiderweb basket and in it he floated up to the sky. She took him to Kuksu’s house where he told Kuksu that he had washed away the people. She lowered Marumda to the ground. He looked for people but found none. He went to the lake where he said there will be people he went to a Valley and wished people to be to and they had a dance house. He smoked again causing a fog. The people ran for cover. He made a speech telling the people together in the dance house where he began the ceremony. Time passed and people started their incestuous ways again. Marumda and Kuksu smoked again. They decided to destroy the people with fire. Marumda told the Fire Man who lived with the sun to burn the earth. Marumda ran around seeking shelter on the mountain when Spider saved him with her net again. She took him to Kuksu’s house. Marumda went to a Valley where he fastened the string to his ear hole after planting willow sticks. People were created. He went to them. He was an old man leaning on a stick. He taught the people that the people before had done wrong. He taught them the way to be, not to commit incest. He made a bowl and an arrow and told the people to shoot a deer. They did not know what to do with it. He taught them to skin it. He taught the women to weave baskets. He taught the women how to prepare food by pounding. He made a fish trap of willow, with which he trapped many fish. He roasted the fish and the women made acorn mush. Marumda went back to his place in the North. Time passed and he dreamed that the people were acting badly again. He went to Kuksu’s house where they smoked. They decided to destroy the people was snow and ice. After they did Marumda went back to the South. He lay down to sleep and wish people to be. He went to their dance house where he told people how it should be. He told them what to eat and use a milkweed string net. He taught the people how to catch fish with the net. He taught them to cook the fish and to eat them. He told them to perform their ceremonies in the dance house and chose one man to be the head chief. He went back to his house and in the north. Time passed. He dreamed that the people were acting badly, turning to incest. He floated to Kuksu’s house where they smoked. He conferred with Kuksu who decided to destroy the people again with a whirlwind. Marumda went to Whirlwind Man’s house who he told that the people were committing incest and they should be destroyed. Whirlwind Man destroyed the people and sought out Marumda with whom he smoked. Marumda thought the earth must not be naked, it must have people. He went to the East where he came to a valley. He planted sticks which he connected to a string in his ear hole. He slept and when he awoke he found people. He made a bow and arrows and taught them to hunt deer. He taught them to net and trap fish. He made a mortar and pestle a metate and mano. He taught them to grind food. He taught them to make friends with people over the hill who spoke differently from them. He taught them to dance. The people hunted the deer and the woman made acorn mush. He taught them to store their food and told them to hold festivals. Some boys talked to him and he took an acorn shell and threw it in the lake where it became a boat. He crossed the lake where Kuksu came. He asked if the people were behaving. Marumda gathered the people and told them to hold a four-day dance. The people crowded the dance house. They went to bathe at the lake and went back to the dance house. They gave Marumda a ball of mush and he departed. He taught the coyotes, the wolves, the pumas to hunt. He taught the skunks and raccoons how to behave. He taught the martins and the elk how to do. He taught all the animals how to do. He taught the birds and the water birds. He taught the fishes. He taught the turtle. Marumda got on top of a mountain and instructed every being how to behave and what to eat. He went to Kuksu’s house where he told them he had done well. Four times people were destroyed. This is how the world came to be.

Walapai Creation Stories

Walapai Creation Story

Adapted from the telling of Alfred Kroeber

In the old days was Wikame, the only land in the world of water. There was Matavila who decided to create people. He cut cane in the water, one piece for each nation of people. He prayed over them, they came to life and the water dried up. After Matavila created people he died. There were the Hopi, Navajo, Paiute, Walapai and Havasupai. These and others separated and went in different directions. The children played roughly in the mud. One got hurt and cried to his parents. The parents of the children began to fight. The relatives joined in. Some of the tribes were afraid to fight and fled. The Walapai and Yavapai fought it out. The Yavapai became afraid and fled to the south. The Yavapai never forgot and continued to fight the Walapai. Eventually the old people died off and the young people became friendly and the fighting stopped.

Coyote Steals Matavila’s Heart

When Matavila, who lived on Wikame, was dying he asked Coyote if when a person dies does he come back in four days? Coyote said, “No, he is gone forever.” The people, when Matavila was dead decided he should be cremated. They sent Coyote away to get fire and while he was gone they asked Fly to make fire. The piled up wood, put the body on top and lit the pyre. Coyote saw the fire and ran back, jumped over Wildcat and Badger and stole a piece of Matavila’s heart that was left. The people pursued Coyote who jumped into a hole in the rock. When the people got there the saw only Chuckawala. Perhaps Coyote had turned into Chuckawala. Coyote ran off and the people pursued. He jumped behind a stump. Perhaps Coyote turned into a stump. They couldn’t find Coyote anywhere. They returned home without Coyote.

Another Creation Story

Once, all the tribes were one. There were two gods, Hamatavila and Tudjupa. Tudjupa was the younger of the two. After the water dried up and left the mountain Wikame, the two gods emerged from under it. Hamatavila told Tudjupa that he knew nothing and that Tudjupa should rule. Tudjupa cut pieces of cane that became the Mohave, the Walapai, that Havasupai, the Hopi, the Chemehuevi and the Yavapai. These people all lived around Wikame. Hamatavila stepped on a frog despite the warning of Tudjupa. Hamatavila became ill and died because of this. Tudjupa said to the people, “We will cremate the body in four days. After four days the body will come to life.” Coyote said this was wrong, told Tudjupa to cut his hair short and burn all of Hamatavila’s property. Tudjupa said to bury the body and corn, pumpkins, watermelons and beans grew from it.

Havasupai Creation Story–The Havasupai Live in Part of the Grand Canyon

Havasupai creation story adapted from the telling of CL Smithson and RC Euler

The people who lived under the earth. There was no sun and a few families live near a pool of water. Two brothers were leaders. One of them planted a grapeseed and the grapevine went straight up. The people climbed a number of days from coil to coil until they came out on top of the ground. There was a girl who is not liked by any of the men so that they would marry her. She turned herself into a tobacco plant so that the men would like her. They gathered it and smoked it and it turned into the woman. She said, “I thought you didn’t like me,” and went off alone again. She went to a pool of water where one of the women looked for lice. She jumped into the water and turned into a frog. Then the water began to rise. The men were talking and said that there wasn’t enough light to hunt small game. They asked their leader to make a light. He said he would but the men had to go to bed and that it would be night. The next morning the moon came up but it was not bright enough. The younger brother said it was not bright enough. He told the man to go to bed as before and at daybreak the sun came up. At that time the sky was not as high as it is now. The clouds were too low in the sun went by too fast. Younger Brother pushed the sky up with cane. The frog woman made the water rise up the coils of the grapevine until it flooded the earth. The people put a small girl in a hollowed out log and sealed it with pitch. She had food, water, animals and birds. The water rose and drowned all the people. It rose to the sky so that the woodpecker hung on it and it came up to his tail feathers. The flicker followed the log around. It came to rest at Grand Falls on the Little Colorado River. The mountains there were bare and had no timber. The girl camped. From the soft mud she made horses, pots, grinding stones and many other things. The girl found a spring in the San Francisco Mountains the men had told her about. She was lonely and decided to become pregnant by the sun’s rays and the water from the spring. She had a daughter. She raised her daughter, then told her to become pregnant as she had by the sun and the water from the spring. She had a son who became a hunter. He was the first one to come to Supai. But the walls of the canyon enclosed up and killed people. He ran very fast and gathered some reeds and came out again. He covered himself with an animal hide he covered with blood. An eagle picked him up and took him to its nest. There he killed the eaglets and took their feathers. He prayed and blew and the rock walls turned the sand so he walked out. He took the feathers and used them on arrows so that they could fly straight. He met his father who was the sun and the spring. His father gave him a horse and a saddle, split him open and put lightning in him. The boy told his grandmother he would go to the East and she would go to the West. He gave her seeds for piñon and grass and other good plants and told her to scatter them along with the rain. When the wind blows you know the boy is going to see his grandmother.

Earth Diver Creation from South Central California

Earth Diver creation stories from South Central California. Folklorist Alan Dundes thinks the Earth Diver story is a case of male pregnancy envy.

Kawaiisu creation adapted after the telling of Maurice Zygmond

Originally there was water all over the world. The animals lived in the sky. Coyotes sent them down to get dirt from the bottom of the ocean. All failed including Coyote. A little bird brought up some dirt on its nails. It put it on a tray and it grew. It grew and it covered all the water. The animals came out of the sky and lived on it.

Pohonichi Miwok creation adapted after the telling of Alfred Kroeber

There was water everywhere. Coyote sent one of the ducks to dive. It at first had trouble, then went to the bottom and bit dirt. It came up and Coyote mixed the dirt with a certain kind of seed. The mixture swelled and the water disappeared. Earth was there.

Gashowu Yokuts creation adapted after the telling of Alfred Kroeber

Prairie Falcon and Raven made earth when everything was water. The beaver, the otter, the mud hen, and mallard, and another kind of duck dove and tried to reach the bottom but failed. A small duck dove, reached the bottom and brought up sand from there. As he rose it all washed away except for a little bit under its fingernail. He gave the sand to Prairie Falcon who mixed it with the tobacco. He gave half to his friend Raven. The Prairie Falcon and Raven went to the north and to the south, to the east and to the west. They dropped the sand which boiled when it hit the water. The world grew from underneath. Prairie Falcon was the first who wanted the world.

Truhohi Yokuts creation adapted from the telling of Alfred Kroeber

In the South was a mountain which was the only land. Everywhere else was water. The people were eating the earth and it was nearly gone. Coyote said to Eagle who was chief, “Can we not make mountains?” Eagle didn’t know how to. Coyote asked Magpie, “Can we obtain earth?” The magpie said it was below them. The ducks dove and tried to bring up earth. They will could not reach it and died. Finally, Mud Hen went down. It was gone for a day and at night and died and floated to the surface. When they looked at the body they found earth under its nails, in its ears and its nose. They mixed this with chiyu seeds. Wolf spread this around but Eagle said let it dry first. Coyote thought it was ready and ran along the soft earth to the east. This formed the Sierra. He ran along the soft earth to the west. This became the Coast Range. Coyote sent the people who were still animals to their places to live. They became people. Eagle told Coyote to stay. He said, “No” – he would go with Eagle. They talked for six days. The Eagle left and Coyote went with him. Now they are both in the sky.

Wukchamai Yokuts creation adapted from the telling of Alfred Kroeber

Everywhere there was water except for a small patch of ground. Coyote and Eagle were there. They sent Turtle to dive to the bottom. The turtle barely made it to the bottom and when he came up all the earth washed away except for a grain of earth that Coyote found in its nails. Eagle and Coyote laid this down. From this the earth came to be. They made six men and six women. They sent these out in pairs to the different directions. Coyote looked to see what they were doing and found that they were eating the earth. Eagle said, “Let’s make something for them to eat”. They sent Dove out and it found a single grain of meal. Eagle and Coyote put this on the ground and the earth became covered with seeds and fruits. The people ate these and spread all over. But under the world there is still water.

Yauelmami Yokuts creation adapted from the telling of Alfred Kroeber

Water was everywhere. The piece of wood grew out of the water to the sky. On the tree was a nest. In the nest was Eagle, Wolf, Coyote, Panther, Prairie Falcon, a hawk, and the Condor. Eagle wanted to make land so he called a small duck to dive to the bottom. It died on the dive but when Eagle and the others checked the body they found dirt under its fingernail. The Eagle took this dirt and mixed it with ground up seeds and made dough. He set it in the water and it swelled and spread everywhere. Eagle told his companions to take some earth. They went back to the nest. In the morning Eagle told Wolf to shout. He did and all became water again. They made the earth again from what they had taken to the nest. Eagle, again told Wolf, “Shout!” He did and the earth was shaken by an earthquake but it stood. Coyote said, I will shout to. He did and the earth shook a very little. They came out of the tree and settled by a lake.

Walapai Creation Stories

Walapai Creation Story

Adapted from the telling of Alfred Kroeber

In the old days was Wikame, the only land in the world of water. There was Matavila who decided to create people. He cut cane in the water, one piece for each nation of people. He prayed over them, they came to life and the water dried up. After Matavila created people he died. There were the Hopi, Navajo, Paiute, Walapai and Havasupai. These and others separated and went in different directions. The children played roughly in the mud. One got hurt and cried to his parents. The parents of the children began to fight. The relatives joined in. Some of the tribes were afraid to fight and fled. The Walapai and Yavapai fought it out. The Yavapai became afraid and fled to the south. The Yavapai never forgot and continued to fight the Walapai. Eventually the old people died off and the young people became friendly and the fighting stopped.

Coyote Steals Matavila’s Heart

When Matavila, who lived on Wikame, was dying he asked Coyote if when a person dies does he come back in four days? Coyote said, “No, he is gone forever.” The people, when Matavila was dead decided he should be cremated. They sent Coyote away to get fire and while he was gone they asked Fly to make fire. The piled up wood, put the body on top and lit the pyre. Coyote saw the fire and ran back, jumped over Wildcat and Badger and stole a piece of Matavila’s heart that was left. The people pursued Coyote who jumped into a hole in the rock. When the people got there the saw only Chuckawala. Perhaps Coyote had turned into Chuckawala. Coyote ran off and the people pursued. He jumped behind a stump. Perhaps Coyote turned into a stump. They couldn’t find Coyote anywhere. They returned home without Coyote.

Another Creation Story

Once, all the tribes were one. There were two gods, Hamatavila and Tudjupa. Tudjupa was the younger of the two. After the water dried up and left the mountain Wikame, the two gods emerged from under it. Hamatavila told Tudjupa that he knew nothing and that Tudjupa should rule. Tudjupa cut pieces of cane that became the Mohave, the Walapai, that Havasupai, the Hopi, the Chemehuevi and the Yavapai. These people all lived around Wikame. Hamatavila stepped on a frog despite the warning of Tudjupa. Hamatavila became ill and died because of this. Tudjupa said to the people, “We will cremate the body in four days. After four days the body will come to life.” Coyote said this was wrong, told Tudjupa to cut his hair short and burn all of Hamatavila’s property. Tudjupa said to bury the body and corn, pumpkins, watermelons and beans grew from it.

The Kiliwa Live In the Mtns of N. Baja California–Their Creation Story Is Different Than Their Neighbors’




Kiliwa Creation story–adapted from the telling of Peveril Meigs
Originally there was nothing – no sky, no mountains – only darkness. Metipa came forth and took a mouthful of water and spat it to the south. Then another to the north. He took a lot and spat it to the west, which created the dangerous sea. Then he took a little and spat to the east which became the sea with little waves. Then he smoked a cigarette and blew smoke toward the seas. Then he decided to make the sky by using his skin. He made four mountain sheep and four mountains. They were the four shaman mountains which were placed in the spaces between the four seas. He tried to create the sky from his skin but it was too fresh so he placed a mountain sheep on each of the four mountains. The horns of the mountain sheep were of different colors: brown and blue, yellow and tan, glittering and gray, red and white. He tried to rest his skin on the mountain sheep but it sagged because it was too fresh. He then made a mole that raised a ridge all around and he laid the skin on the ridge. This time the skin stayed. He made the sun by drawing it out of his elbow but it would not come. Then he tried to draw it out of his thigh but it would not come. He tried to draw it out of the top of his head but could not. Finally he drew it out of his mouth which is hot. Then he tried to make a creosote bush for shade from the sun. The heat was unbearable. He then made a rattlesnake which pushed the sun higher into the sky. Then he made a horse by getting on his hands and knees. His shadow made the horse. He had seeds of all the plants. Then he made dog, people and clothing. Having made everything, he became sick. He tried lying on a bed of herbs. It did not help and he died. He tried to lift his body but could not. A singer came forth and raised winds from the four directions. The body was raised. The singer raised the body and they burned it. This is so people would die.
Another creation story
Metipa came out of the earth. He made his four sons. Then he made the moon and put it in the east. He thought he hung it badly so he moved to the west. That is why the moon always sets in the west. Then Metipa  made the sun. He had it in his stomach. He brought it out of his mouth and put it in the sky, but he thought it hung it badly so he put it back in his stomach. He then tried to bring it out of his rectum and hung it in the east. This is why people have scorched rectums. Then he made plants, hills and animals. He named them all. Then he made the four seas. Everything was small. Everything had to grow just as a person grows. After he died and was cremated, he made a moth. This is the last animal he made. When he died he went back into the earth in his bones became veins in the rocks in the mountains. Metipa taught his four sons to make bows, arrows, arrowheads, fire, mescal nets, ollas, houses, blankets etc. He ordered his sons to make these things and to marry women and have children.
The flood
It took place in the San Felipe desert. A shaman killed jackrabbits. He put them to the side where they became people. They were his sons. His sons went ahead and the old man stayed behind. There was a fire circle hunt for rabbits which is sons participated in. The people ordered Badger to make a hole. They covered the hole with branches and ordered the boys to sit on the branches. They fell into the hole and were killed. They filled up the hole. One of the sons of Metipa killed the boys. The people on the hunt were his people. They killed the boys because they killed too many rabbits. The shaman father looked for his sons but could not find them. A bird told him who had killed his sons. He had a rabbit which he had killed and he took parts of the rabbit out and threw them in the four directions. It rained and all the people were killed by the force of the storm. The shaman and his people stayed in a cave and avoided the storm. After the rain all of the people in the cave (who were animals) went back to the places where they live. When the flood came all the people went to the north, perhaps to California where the cave was.

Imagine 95% of everybody you know dying

When Europeans came to the Americas they brought with them diseases that are endemic in their societies. These diseases largely came from domestic animals they lived in close association with. Some 10 diseases, including small pox and measles, were illnesses Native Americans had no resistance to, not having had exposure to them before. It is estimated that there was a mortality rate of 95% in some places, largely from the diseases, but also augmented by the maltreatment the conquerors inflicted. Imagine 95% of everybody you know dying.